This is achievedby evaluatingEquation 4 for the change in one parameterwhile holding the othersconstant. In most air heaters,the majority of the air in the flue gasis leakagefrom the higher pressure, air- side of the air heater. Temperature Traverse Uncertainty Calculation The weight averagetemperatureof a gas flowing in a duct is basedon a flow weighted average of the temperaturesobtained from a standardtraverseof the duct. This is discussedfurther in the appendix. If these temperaturecorrectionsarenot provided by the equipment manufacturer as algorithms or plots , they can be estimatedby the procedurepresentedin this paper.
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For many of the parametersexamined in this work, the parameterswere a independentand all of the terms in Equation Al were evaluated. For the details of the estimation of the uncertaintiesof other parameters,refer to the final Milliken project report8 Only the errors and uncertainty for theseother evaluations are presentedhere.
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If the vendor baseshis X-ratio correction curve on an X-ratio with a design leak, this plot should be correctedto zero leak before generating Equation 6.
Watts DOE, FETC With the increasedemphasison the efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired, steamgenerationfacilities, the performance of ancillary equipment is becoming increasinglyimportant. Equation A5 producessix setsof partial differential equations.
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Please login to your authorized staff account to use this feature. This is discussedfurther in the appendix.
Details of the air heaterperformanceand qsme the uncertainty analysis can be found in the referencedreports. Instead,performanceindicators such asthe measuredeffectivenessof the air- and gas-sidesand the X-ratio are compareddirectly againstdesign values. In the caseof the bias error, the crossproduct telms accountfor essentially all of the error in determining the averagetemperature. Biasesare associated with the measuring equipment or procedureand cannot be minimized by repeatmeasurements.
The bias error is responsiblefor the majority of the uncertainty evenwith only a four-point traverse. FORMAT Single User Subscription Site License Subscription BOOKS All Books PACKAGES All Packages EDITION to PUBLISHER.
The following example shows the evaluation of one of the incrementalchangeterms required by Equation Equations similar to Equation 4 can be usedto estimatethe effect of one prc the other parametersof the equationto obtain a temperaturecorrection for that parameteralone.
If the denominatorof Equation A5 is set equal to Sum1and the numerator equal to Sum2 to simplify the resulting equations,thesepartial differentials are: In the caseof the Milliken study, the qsme equationsagreedwith results from the plots within the ability to read the plots.
Thus, they apply to any air heater. Click here to sign up.
Copyright Compu-tecture, Inc. The bias and random errors are propagatedseparatelyusing Taylor seriesexpansionsfor highly otc equations: Since the X-ratio is defined aathe weight times heat capacityratio of the air over that of the flue gas, the X-ratio can be approximatedas the ratio of the temperaturechangesfor the two fluids: For easeof analysis pyc of estimating the uncertainty, theseplots were convertedinto mathematical expressionsof the form: The algorithm was of the form: However, this derivation will be general.
Asme Ptc 4.3 Air Heaters Bw (1991)
Temperature Traverse Uncertainty Calculation The weight averagetemperatureof a gas flowing in a duct is basedon a flow weighted average of the temperaturesobtained from a standardtraverseof the duct. Substituting Equation 8 asmee Equation 7 yields: In the caseof Equation 15, the air leak introduces a significant non-linearity which invalidates this approach.
Since the parametersh and4 were evaluatedat three times the bias error, o, greater and three times the bias error lower than the actual value of the temperatureof the inlet air, aame total delta is six times a.
The air heaterson Unit 2 were replacedto improve unit efficiency as part of the demonstration program.